“Ballerina Birds!”

Big Bird has landed!! An elegant and exotic Mute Swan found grounded in Morehead City unable to stand, appearing sickly and underweight has been admitted to The Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport. With no injuries evident during examination, the staff has theorized toxicity and is flushing her system to rid her of possible poisons or lead ingestion. Time will tell if our efforts will win the race against organ damage. She is still weak, but is eating very well, which is always a good sign. The admission of a Mute Swan is atypical to the shelter because they are not native here. They are common place in Europe and Asia and a few were imported to northern regions of the United States during the 18th century. Their American population has grown in the last few years and although rare to see Mute Swans this far south, it is believed that because they are not migratory, developers or land owners are bringing them in to decorate ponds and lakes. Probably not the best thing to do, but it is happening. If a few have made it here on their own, that is a major feat for one of the heaviest flying birds on the planet! Male Mute Swans, known as Cobs, typically weigh between 23 to 27 pounds, and females weigh in at a little less. The only waterfowl heavier than the Mute Swan is the Trumpeter Swan. The beautiful, adult Mute Swan can tower four feet high, cover 56 to 62 inches of length in ground space and their wing span is an impressive 79 to 94 inches! Their bill is vibrant orange with a black base and sports a bulging black knob on the base. A Mute Swan is easily recognizable with its long neck curved into an S and its snowy-white plumage. Sometimes under-feathering presents in orange or brown, but that is stain caused by iron and tannins in the water. These gorgeous, giant water birds are written into fairy tales, romanticized because a pair of Swans, who mate for life, create a “lover’s heart” as their heads touch when they greet or during mating and are represented in ballets during dance. As a child, this author always referred to beautiful swans as ‘Ballerina Birds’ after experiencing “Swan Lake.” Mute Swans feed on aquatic plants, exclusively on submerged aquatic vegetation, such as read head grass and widgeon grass, as well as, fish, frogs and insects. It is estimated that the adult male Mute Swan eats up to nine pounds of aquatic vegetation every day and for that reason alone, their presence is controversial. That voracious appetite can easily disturb local ecosystems and displace native wildlife species. They feed on underwater plants by plunging their long neck into the water. Our Mute Swan at the shelter is currently putting away quite the haul of greens and trout chow. Mute Swans nest on large mounds they build in the middle of a shallow lake or pond. They reuse the same nest each year, restoring or rebuilding as needed. Male and female swans share the care of the nest. Although Mute Swans appear very statuesque and dignified, they are strongly territorial and become fiercely aggressive when defending their nest. They have been known to attack people who venture into their nesting area by biting and jabbing with the bony spurs on their wings. So, if you catch a glimpse of a Mute Swan and choose to go bold by moving in to get a closer look, be careful. If you hear a hissing or grunting sound and see the Swan’s wings half raised, that is a threat display, and they will be coming after you! The Female Mute Swan, called the Pen, lays four to eight greenish brown eggs and the hatchlings, called cygnets, are ash gray-brown born within 35 to 38 days. Their bill is grayish rather than orange for the first year. Once the cygnets fledge, it is not uncommon to see the whole family looking for food. In approximately three months after hatching they are adult size but do not match adult coloring. Within 6 to 7 months the youngsters develop the famous white plumage and the long neck that helps them reach through the water to snatch the aquatic food they enjoy. The young start pairing at age one and become sexually mature at age two but usually don’t reproduce until age three or four. Mute Swans spend most of their time floating on the water, and in our area you may find them in city park ponds, rivers, lakes, coastal bays, wetlands, marshes, streams, slow flowing areas, large fresh water areas and estuaries. Although they do grunt when making a threat, they are generally silent waterfowl. The most familiar sound associated with the Mute Swan is the ‘whooshing’ of their wings in flight because it takes extreme effort to take off from the water. Adult Mute Swans don’t have many natural enemies, other than the Fox, who have been known to attack, but because the Mute Swan is so big, fierce and agile for a bird that size, the fox doesn’t always win! There are threats greater to the swan than predators. Pollution, lead poisoning, swallowing discarded fishing hooks and fishing line entanglements are extremely dangerous encounters for Mute Swans. Also, if they take flight, collisions with overhead power lines have been known to occur. Their longevity in the wild is only five to six years but in domestication, up to 25 years. Please keep in mind that it is unlawful for anyone to release Mute Swans into the public waters of North Carolina, but they can be maintained on privately controlled waters that do not have access to public waters, but then you must ensure the Mute Swans understand that they must stay put, and therein lies the challenge. We are working hard to help our big, beautiful girl recover so she can return to her Mute Swan mate, as well as, goose and swan friends in her neighborhood pond that does not reach public NC water!

best always and Happy Easter!,

Linda Bergman-Althouse

author of “Save Them All

“Whistle Pigs & Chucklings!”

By now, we all know that Punxsutawney Phil emerged from hibernation on February 2nd and saw his shadow, which means six more weeks of winter, but those of us on the coast of North Carolina who are enjoying warmer weather as of late are not putting a lot of stock in his prediction. We all know that Phil is a Groundhog turned weatherman, right? Groundhogs, also called “Woodchucks,” a name originating from the Cree Indian word “wuchak” and nicknamed “Whistlepigs,” because they are known to give a shrill whistle alarm that carries for quite a distance to warn other Groundhogs of impending danger, are native to North America including North Carolina and although found more often in the Western part of our state, they have expanded to our Piedmont and Coastal regions more recently. Although these little diggers aren’t prevalent yet on the coast, the few who are here can still run into trouble such as injury or illness that may require rehabilitation intervention at the Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport. So, wildlife rehabilitators at our facility must be familiar with every species that could possibly come through the clinic door, even as rare in our area as they may be. Groundhogs are large pudgy-bodied mammals of the rodent family that weigh in at 5 to 12 pounds and can reach two feet in length. They are covered with coarse fur that ranges in color from brown to reddish or yellowish brown with a silver shine on the tips of their hair. Their head is short and wide. Groundhogs are well adapted for digging with their short, powerful limbs and five curved, thick claws on each foot. They will run on all fours and frequently stand on their hind feet to survey the area or sound the alarm. Their tail is densely haired, slightly flattened and one-fifth to one-third of the animal’s total length. A groundhog’s ears are short, broad, rounded and well haired, and their eyes are circular and small. Besides the high-pitched whistle they are known for, they also squeal when fighting, produce low barks and produce an unusual teeth grinding sound. They are diurnal animals which means they are most active during the early morning and late afternoon hours and not at night. Groundhogs have been observed climbing trees near residential areas or standing in open country at the edge of woodlands, but never too far from their burrow entrance. So they are comfortable in a variety of habitats such as pastures, brushy woodlots, open woods and areas along stream banks. Although they prefer forest habitats, the choices of under deck patios, sheds, in gardens and anything surrounded by wood or brush in residential areas are not ruled out. Woodchucks have adapted well to human activities such as agriculture and urban development. Therefore, taking up residence close to humans can become a problem for home owners when you consider the type of property damage Groundhogs are capable of as they dig networks of burrows under houses, sheds or any manmade structure. Please keep in mind that it has been stated by Humane Society professionals that it would take a lot of woodchucks working over many years to create tunnel systems that would pose any significant risk to a structure. However, Groundhogs leave their mark everywhere they go by chewing, gnawing, digging and causing the disappearance of tasty flowers, fruits and vegetables. Gardeners are usually not too happy with their presence. Woodchucks enjoy a strict herbivore diet and prefer the more tender parts of new growth from a variety of wild and cultivated, succulent plants such as clover, alfalfa and grasses. They hibernate during the winter from November until February. Mating occurs in March or April, and four to six young are produced after a 32-day gestation period, and of course, like all furry mammal babies, they are adorable! The young, called “Chucklings,” are born blind, helpless, toothless, almost naked and weigh one to two ounces, and because they are mammals, they will nurse for about 3 months. Between 3 to 5 months the youngsters will leave the birth area and head out on their own to burrow their own den. Groundhogs become sexually mature at one year and can have two litters annually. Although groundhogs are the most solitary of all marmots, which are burrowing rodents, several individuals may occupy adjacent burrows or dens. Burrows with den chambers 20 inches to three feet below ground will have five to eight entrance/exists to enable rapid escape from predators, such as coyote, fox, bobcat, eagle, cougar, dog, wolf and man. Snakes pose the most threat to infant Groundhogs. Despite this little plant lover’s tendency to wreck a garden and dig tunnels that could compromise some structural integrity, they also do some good in the world! Although an indirect benefit, Groundhogs’ burrows become homes for animals such as fox and skunks who feed upon mice, grasshoppers, bugs and other menacing creatures that would destroy a farmer’s crops. A groundhog’s expert digging skills also brings healthy and nutritious subsoil to the surface.

The presence of Woodchucks has been responsible for unearthing artifacts such as pottery and stones that archeologists then claim as a new dig site. This unique animal with a variety of names, is very interesting to watch, but if you encounter a Groundhog, it is best NOT to make or attempt physical contact, because they can bite and may carry certain zoonotic conditions that can be passed from them to you. Observation while keeping your distance is always the best policy. In zoo environments or wildlife sanctuaries where non-releaseable Groundhogs serve as Education Ambassadors, their recorded life spans have reached 9 to 14 years, but the average life expectancy for a Woodchuck in the wild is only 2 to 3 years. If by chance a “WhistlePig” reaches 5 or 6 years in the wild, that is considered an extremely long and lucky life!

best always,

Linda Bergman-Althouse

author of “Save Them All

“THEY ARE HERE!”

blog_armadilloxxeThe state small mammal of Texas has been heading our way for a few years now and by observation accounts to the North Carolina Wildlife Commission, some have made it! Armadillos were spotted in South Carolina in the late 1990’s, and word was they would not get as far as North Carolina because our winters are too cold for them to tolerate. Well, SURPRISE! This nocturnal, omnivorous mammal covered in bony plates has dumfounded biologists. The animal considered not intelligent enough to avoid traffic has made its way up U.S. Highway 17 along the coast into the Tar Heel state, and witnesses have observed an armadillo leaping three to four feet straight up in the air to avoid an oncoming car. There are different species of armadillo, but the one moving into our area is the Nine-banded Armadillo. They have also been found in mountain counties in far western North Carolina, which begs us to think, if they can live in high elevations like the Smokies, they can live anywhere. There is debate on their method of arrival, though. Are they being transported, deliberately or not, or are they waddling their way here? The biggest deterrent for the presence of armadillos is weather because the animals can’t endure prolonged cold and frozen soil, but our mild winters as of late have opened the door for Nine-Banded Armadillo travel. Their presence is well established in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and it was always believed the “armored” brownish-gray animal the size of an opossum or housecat could only thrive in warm, wetland habitats and preferably the arid landscape of Texas, but now we know, it ain’t so! Even farther north, Illinois and Indiana, are experiencing the arrival of the NB Armadillo. Maybe the weather isn’t as important as the abundance of fresh water, forests, bugs and critters to eat, although frozen ground makes foraging for grubs almost impossible. Armadillos need to be able to forage steadily. Since they are coming and some are already here, the staff at the Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport need to become knowledgeable on the topic of Armadillo rehabilitation and how to raise orphaned Armadillos, so we have taken on the task to learn everything we can about the new wildlife coming our way. As with all wildlife, the need to wear our personal protective equipment (PPE) will be required to ensure anything zoonotic will not be passed from animal to human. This pre-historic and exotic looking little creature with a bulbous snout that we are now learning about has been given quite a few nick-names; Texas Turkey, Armored Pig, Possum on a Half Shell, Hoover Hog, Rabbit Turtle which is a name given them by the ancient Aztecs, and they are also described as a “Platypus in a conquistador helmet.” blog_armadilloxyeThe Nine-banded Armadillo weighs between 5 and 14 pounds and is 25 – 42 inches long, including the tail. They have short legs, but can move rather quickly. Their body is covered by nonoverlapping scales that are connected by flexible bands of skin. The shell or armor covers the back, sides, head, tail and outer sides of the legs. Their underbelly protection is comprised of thick skin and coarse hair, and they have long, shovel like claws for digging. We now know the Armadillo is a very adaptable animal that primarily feeds on invertebrates such as insects, snails and earthworms. They forage for meals while making snorting noises by thrusting their snouts into loose soil and leaves and frantically dig to surface grubs, beetles, carrion with maggots, ants, termites and those juicy worms, which their sensitive noses can detect through eight inches of soil. They are amazing in their uniqueness! Although the NBA can’t roll itself into a ball as other armadillos, such as the Three-banded can, it will inflate its intestines to float or dog-paddle across a river or it may choose to hold its breath for up to six minutes while sinking into the water and running underwater across the riverbed. Their teeth are similar to those of sloths and anteaters; all small molars, no incisors and no enamel. Armadillos live in eight-inch entranced burrows that can be seven feet deep and 25 feet long. They will mark their territory with urine, feces and excretions from scent glands found on their feet, nose and eyelids. If there is a territorial dispute, a bit of kicking and chasing will usually end it. Breeding takes place during July and August producing a litter of four optimally. As reptilian as an Armadillo may look, they are mammals and will nurse the infants for about three months before the youngsters begin foraging for food with Mom. They will stay with Mom, the sole provider, for six months to a year. NBA’s will be sexually mature at one year and will reproduce every year throughout their 12-15 year lifespan. That’s a lot of babies and could be one of the reasons for the species expansion north! Although Armadillos can wreck havoc with gardens and root systems while they forage or create elaborate burrows, on the positive side, they eat pesky bugs, create habitats for other wildlife and are known to bring more song birds to an area because birds, such as warblers, will follow and hang out with Armadillos. The birds will capitalize on the NBA’s unearthing of insects and invertebrates to supplement their own nutritional needs. Not many animals mess with Armadillos in the wild, so they have few real predators, but although it’s not easy, alligators and panthers have been known to partake in an adult NBA or two. Infant Nine-banded Armadillos are at risk of predation by bobcats, coyotes and hawks. But of course, the greatest threat for an Armadillo has treaded tires and rolls in the form of trucks, cars and motorcycles. Like opossums, the NBA, has the unfortunate tendency to stare at approaching headlights, so although armadillos can jump, it’s not always high or fast enough to win the vehicular battle. blog_armadilloxyzeThese solitary, dinosaur era animals may look a little funny or downright odd, but they are survivors and have been around for 50 million years!! Ok, so they’re not cute balls of fluff. They still need protection, cover, water and loose soil for stirring up some food, and North Carolina has all of that. We used to say, “They Are Coming!” but now we know “They Are Here!

BEST ALWAYS,

Linda Bergman-Althouse

Author of “Save Them All

“Night Gliders”

a_blog_sfs_x“It’s a bird! No . . it’s a bat!” It could very well be that both guesses are wrong. The diminutive night flyer, gliding from tree to tree on folds of outstretched skin is the most common mammal never seen by humans in North Carolina, so it is easily misidentified. The Southern Flying Squirrel is a small rodent with big saucer like eyes that occupies habitat similar to his larger cousins, the gray squirrel and the fox squirrel, however this itty-bitty squirrel is nocturnal, becoming active and feeding only at night while foraging on the ground. It weighs no more than 2 to 3 oz. and measures from 8 1/2 in. to 9 7/8 in., including a 3 to 4-inch tail. The Southern Flying Squirrel is the smallest of North Carolina’s 5 tree squirrel species. Its fur is a ravishing reddish brown or gray, although its belly is colored a creamy white. The most distinctive feature it sports is the cape of loose skin that stretches from its wrists to its ankles and forms a membrane, called the patagium, with which it is capable of gliding. The membrane is bordered in black. When the squirrel stretches its legs to their fullest extent, the membrane opens and supports the animal on glides of considerable distance. Although it is called a “flying” squirrel, it actually jumps and parachutes rather than flies! It’s amazing to catch a visual of them in “flight.” a_blog_squirrelflyingeThe gliding membrane billows up, and by varying the tension on the patagium and using its tail as a rudder (like the tail on a kite), the SFS can direct its glide around branches and other obstacles with remarkable agility, although it cannot gain altitude during a glide. However, it can make a sudden 90-degree angle turn in the direction of its glide. That fluffy little “multi-purpose” tail is also used for communication and thermal regulation. Although the distance they glide is usually short, the longest flight on record was measured at around 200 feet. The flying squirrel lands hind feet first, head up and scampers to the side of the tree to avoid detection. The Southern Flying Squirrel is one of two flying squirrels found in North America— the other one is the Northern Flying Squirrel. While both are found in North Carolina, the Northern FS is rare and found only at higher elevations in the western part of our state. Although a fairly quiet animal, flying squirrels can produce birdlike chirping sounds, but some of their vocalizations are not audible to the human ear. Preferred habitats for Southern Flying Squirrels include hardwood and mixed pine-hardwood forests. They require older trees with cavities that provide 11/2 to 2 in. in diameter entrances for roosting and nesting, and in winter these adorable squirrels readily gather in surprisingly large numbers. Tree cavities have been found with as many as 50 roosting squirrels. Because of their need for tree cavity habitats, they are a natural competitor for woodpeckers’ homes, and even though they are quite cute, they’ve been known to bully an endangered Red-Cockaded Woodpecker from its nesting cavity and take over the residence. Bluebird boxes are also quite attractive to flying squirrels. Wildlife rehabilitators at the Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport get involved in the rescue and rehabilitation of this delightful, tiny squirrel when the little one chooses a cavity precariously close to a residence or possibly, even manages to enter a house. It’s not uncommon for Southern Flying Squirrels to find a cavity somewhere on a residential structure and make their way into an attic or a wall to find a perfect and safe dwelling to nest and raise babies, which some folks object to. Sometimes a tree is cut down before realizing it is home to nesting or roosting flyers. Tree cutters bring the homeless little gliders to the shelter to ensure they are cared for and raised properly for eventual release back into the wild, giving them that second chance we at the shelter are known for. When they are admitted, usually due to displacement rather than injury, we attempt to replicate their omnivorous natural diet as best we can. If very young, shelter staff will provide syringe formula until they are ready for solid foods such as meal worms, fruits, berries, flower blossoms, vegetables, seeds and nuts.a_blog_flying-squirrel-009e Nesting and breeding usually occurs twice a year; January-February and June-July. A typical nest will be lined with finely chewed bark, especially cedar bark in the east and grasses. Lichen, moss and even feathers will provide a soft bed. More than one nest is constructed as a necessary Plan B in the wild, because Mom will need to move her infants if the nest is disturbed by natural elements such as damaging weather or predator presence such as owls, hawks, snakes, bobcats, coyotes, raccoons, weasels, foxes and the common house or feral cat (which is the most prevalent and lethal danger posed to them). The average litter produces one to three young that weigh in at less than a quarter ounce each. The youngsters will open their eyes at four weeks and stay with Mom until she births her next litter. Although SFS are mammals and babies will nurse for about a month, they will be gliding and eating on their own by eight weeks. Unfortunately, Mom is on her own during this time, as males do not assist with the rearing of babies. It will take about a year for the youngin’s to mature before reproducing. Life expectancy for these cute little rodents is up to 13 years in captivity, but not more than 4 or 5 years in the wild.a_blog_sfs_ Flying squirrels are the oldest living line of “modern” squirrels, and fossil records date back over 30 million years. SFS are a nongame species and although not listed as endangered, we should still be mindful that their presence gives humans a better quality of life. Those cutie-patooties glide through the night feeding on a variety of insects and big ‘ole bugs that would surely be annoying to us during the day! So, if you find Southern Flying Squirrels have moved into your home or they are now homeless due to a tree ‘fell,’ please contact your nearest wildlife rehabilitation center or wildlife control officer for assistance, not just because they are cute, but because we need to protect and relocate our environmental partners!

best always,

Linda Bergman-Althouse

author of “Save Them All

“Wintering Scoters”

a_blog_malescoterflightThere are so many species of duck that belong to the Anatidae family of birds; Dabbling Ducks, Stiff-Tailed Ducks, Sea Ducks, Whistling Ducks, Diving Ducks, that it’s hard to know them all, especially the identity of ducks we don’t see in our area very often. Some ducks live and breed far removed from the U.S. as far as the north of England or Scotland and only pass this way during winter migration. The coast of North Carolina has been a good choice for wintering Scoters for many years. They gather in tightly packed, large flocks that take off together when they choose to move either in a straight line or in a V formation. A group of Scoters is called a ‘Mooter’ or a ‘Scooter.’ Avid bird watchers have also discovered that freshwater rivers and lakes are not off limits to wintering Scoters. Recently, a wildlife enthusiast in Emerald Isle noticed a rather stocky brown duck who seemed to be having trouble getting lift off to fly. After it appeared flight wasn’t going to happen, he managed to scoop up the duck and transport her to the Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport for a check-up. The little, diving sea duck turned out to be a Common Scoter, which are also called Black Scoters, depending upon gender. The scientific name of the Common Scoter is ‘Nigra,’ which means black. Our juvenile Scoter patient had pale cheeks, a milk chocolate body with a whitish belly and a dark brownish-black, wide bill which we assessed as female. An adult male has glossy black plumage with a shiny black bill adorned with a colorful yellow or orange bulbous knob at the base. Both have dark brown eyes. Their legs are brown to black and their webbed feet, are also black. Generally speaking, this is a dark, cold water duck (but not so cold it doesn’t head south for the winter!). Her examination revealed no injuries, but she was underweight. Since there was a covered swimming pool in the area where she was found, our theory is she landed on the cover thinking it was a body of water, and did not have the water source required to maneuver her usual run across the water for take-off. a_blog_femalescoter3She basically grounded herself. A sea-duck’s legs, such as a Scoter’s, are situated a little farther back than those of a Mallard, Muscovy or Pekin, so they don’t walk upright on land very well. It’s not known how long she’d been sitting there with no food or water, but we do know she hadn’t eaten in some time because she was very, very hungry. A Scoter is a coastal duck that usually breeds in the sub-artic and has not been studied extensively in North America. Only a few nests in our country have ever been found. The common Scoter is a highly sociable species and is often seen in large groups, especially during the winter. For this reason, we knew rehabilitation timing would be an issue. She needs to pack on weight quickly so we can return her to her own kind before she succumbs to severe depression or the stress of captivity. A Scoter is a bulky little duck who weighs on average 2 to 2 ½ pounds with the male typically heavier in weight, wingspan is 28 inches and their height, bill to tail, is 18 to 20 inches. They have a long, pointy tail they hold straight up while sitting on water. This duck species dives for food, so it was a little tricky getting her to eat fish, shrimp, worms and insects in a hospital setting, but her rumbling tummy won out. It won’t be long now! In the wild, she will add crustaceans, mussels, fish eggs and duck weed to her diet. Scoters swallow mullosks whole and crush the shells in its gizzard. An interesting factoid regarding this diving duck is that they literally spread their wings under water and fly through the water to catch their prey! The Common Scoter is a fairly quiet bird, so we don’t hear much from her, but when we do catch a rare vocalization, it’s a harsh, raspy quack and just one. During courtship the male Scoter gets a little noisier with some high, shrill whistles and is known to be the most vocal of all waterfowl year’round. In their native territories, (Europe and Asia) male and female Scoters build a nest during April or May which is nothing more than a hefty scrape on the ground near water, lined with a grass/down mix and hidden by vegetation. a_blog_scoterf7The female will lay 6 to 8 off-white to pinkish buff eggs which hatch in about 30 days. The ducklings are born eyes-open, dark brown and able to swim and feed themselves soon after hatching, although they are not able to fly until around 45 days old. The youngsters then head out on their own, and the parents return to their flock to molt, which will render them unable to fly during the time they are losing and growing in new feathers. The Common Scoter is found all over the world, depending upon the time of year, but in their native countries, numbers of Scoters have fallen by 47% over the past two decades and although the reason is not pinpointed, the huge decline in population has been attributed to a number of factors such as oil spills, offshore wind farms, disturbance by boat traffic, hunting, climate change, pollution, development, natural predation, commercial exploitation and possibly, lower breeding success. England has placed the Common Scoter on their “Red List” which means they recognize urgent conservation action is needed for this stocky, diminutive, community oriented duck. We hope our “plumping” Common Scoter continues to thrive and is able to return to her flock. We aren’t sure what country she’s from, but we think we’ve heard a wee bit of an English accent in her quack!!

best always,

Linda Bergman-Althouse

Author of “Save Them All

“Snakes get NO RESPECT!!”

blog_redbelliedwatersnake3eSnakes are amazing creatures, but unfortunately, snakes are also among the least popular of all animals. Many people have a natural aversion or fear of snakes while others simply choose to hate them for reasons they may or may not know. The negative stigma surrounding snakes is quite undeserved, and it is believed by wildlife biologists and those who work with snakes that this cold-blooded vertebrate is most assuredly a misunderstood animal, especially when you consider it is known by conservation professionals that snakes are extremely beneficial to our eco-system and our environment. Recently a Red-Bellied Water Snake, attacked by a shovel attached to a human, was admitted to the Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport. The 4-foot snake received her second chance after a neighbor quickly realized what was happening, intervened and transported the reptile to our shelter, but not before the snake had suffered quite a few lacerations. The water snake was not in the best shape when she arrived, but receiving her immediately following the attack helped to minimize further damage and a treatment plan of medication and generous applications of antibiotic ointment was urgently administered. A full examination assessed the cuts were not as deep as they could have been and her vital organs had been spared. The slithery one was quite lethargic at first due to the trauma and shock of her ordeal, but she is doing very well now. The pretty girl is perky, fast, loves her soaks and is putting away quite the number of small fish during a feeding. Around the world there are more than 2600 species of snakes and most are nonvenomous. Fossil records show snakes have been around for over 130 million years. blog_molesnakeeSnakes are valuable components to the communities in which they reside as they play the roles of predator and prey. Most snakes, other than water snakes who like fish and other aquatics, prey heavily on insects and rodents. When snake populations decrease, the numbers of rats and mice increase which causes serious problems for people. Stories have been told where someone thought it a good idea at the time to eradicate an area of all snakes, only to eventually become overrun when the rat population exploded! It proved to take years, hundreds of people hours and tens of thousands of dollars in equipment and harmful chemicals to remove rats without natural predators such as snakes. Rats and mice reproduce often and destroy gardens, crops, homes, start fires by chewing electrical wires and can also spread harmful diseases. Snakes are very effective at hunting small rodents because they are designed to crawl into small burrows and other areas used as rodent shelters. These places are too small for other predators to maneuver. All snakes are described similarly; long, linear shaped reptiles covered with a skin of supple, living scales. They are legless with staring eyes that never blink, and they sport a great marvel of nature; the flickering forked tongue used to perceive scents, which is their main sensory organ. Snakes present in every color you can think of depending upon the type. blog_corn-snake1eThey have fangs that will or will not deliver toxic venom, depending, also, upon the snake species. As defense mechanisms, even the shyest of snakes can hiss, coil, puff up or bite when threatened by a human. These behaviors alone may very well scare people, but the best thing to do if you encounter a snake is LEAVE IT ALONE. blog_black-racer2eSnakes usually prefer to retreat when confronted but can become defensive if provoked. Although most snakes are not poisonous, they can still bite and snake bites usually occur when people try to capture or kill them. Snakes are known to swallow food much larger than their heads. This is possible because the lower jaw of a snake is loosely attached to the skull, allowing snakes to open their mouths very wide. As an extra adaptation, the lower jaw bones of snakes are not joined together at the front. This allows each side of the lower jaw to move independently and helps the snake stretch its mouth over large prey. blog_rbwsnake3Then the snake alternately moves each side of its jaws over the prey until swallowed. Most snakes belong to the Colubridae family and are found on every continent except Antarctica. Colubrids are much smaller than Boas and Pythons, move very fast and will eat once a week to once a month. Quite often eating depends upon opportunity and the faster the snake’s metabolism the more often they will need to eat. Snakes use their highly-developed senses of sight, taste, hearing and touch to track and locate prey. They are highly mobile creatures, able to move over sand and rocks, burrow in the soil, squeeze through cracks and crevasses in rocks, climb vertical rock walls and the thinnest tree branches and even swim with great speed. You may have heard a gruesome saying that the “only good snake is a dead snake,” Well, we need to debunk that old myth! Snakes deserve respect because they help maintain a high level of biodiversity that is extremely important to all life on Earth. blog_rosyratsnakeeThey are middle-order predators that help keep our natural eco-systems working. In addition, they become prey for other wildlife such as hawks, eagles and other raptors that could simply vanish if snakes were not a viable food source. Venomous snakes, albeit a bit more touchy subject, deserve props too for the great work they do in the medical field. Snake venom is used to treat excessive bleeding, cancers, heart disease and stroke victims, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, which saves millions of peoples’ lives every year. When our Red-Bellied Water Snake is released, please watch out for her, for she is only going to do good things! She will probably bulk up a little before the end of autumn and you might see her grabbing a warm sun spot in the driveway or on the patio before dormancy, which is another term for hibernation, during the winter. When left alone, snakes present little or no danger to people, so adapting to live safely with snakes is doable, as long as you control your fear factor. LET THEM BE! When you get the chance, stop by our shelter to meet Blanca, our resident leucistic Rat Snake. blog_blancaowlsjul09xeDeprived of her natural camouflage coloring at birth, she has become a hefty, white beauty who is a fascinating Wildlife Ambassador! Total respect!

Best Always and HAPPY THANKSGIVING!

Linda Bergman-Althouse

Author of “Save Them All

A Wild November Night!!

fboct2016_redtailedmg_3990xfPlease check the date and put us on your calendar for next month for a crazy fun and wild time with great food at our biggest annual fundraiser! The Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter’s (OWLS) Art and Silent Auction will be held on Friday, November 18th, from 6 pm (doors open), 6:30 dinner to 10 pm at the Civic Center in Morehead City, NC. How timely for the auction to be held a month before Christmas, because who doesn’t need a few special gifts for their special folks and what a fun way to shop! The money earned from this event is spent to assist with feeding, providing medical needs, transporting, housing and eventual release of thousands of wild animals admitted to our clinic each year and also to teach fellow North Carolinians and tourists how to happily and peacefully coexist with wildlife. fb_oct2016_ghoWhile OWLS has all the proper permits necessary to legally care for wild animals, we receive no state or federal funding. It is through the generosity of the public that we have been in business and continue to support a necessary service to the community since 1988. Since our founding, OWLS has admitted more than 25,000 patients, facilitated numerous educational programs for primary and secondary schools, as well as, civic organizations and has provided a series of wildlife camps during the summer that are extremely popular with school age children. fboct2016_fox-squirrel_ji7z1275All our programs and camp weeks allow our campers to get up close (but not too close!) and personal with some amazing animals that they may never see in the wild and learn how to help wildlife by “going green.” fboct2016dTickets to our annual fundraising event are only $35 per person and include a scrumptious dinner provided by generous and compassionate restaurants from Carteret County, a happy open bar, excellent live entertainment (that just might move you to get up and dance) and a thrilling, nail biting silent auction. Our dinner, which we call the “Taste of Carteret” is always plentiful, the auction items are “must haves” for you or someone you choose to gift and the opportunity to hang out with old friends and make new ones by meeting our volunteers and staff, priceless! Some friends & family have made our wildlife party their annual reunion time!! So, you don’t want to miss this gala event. There are so many stories to share about unique wild animals who have been admitted to our facility for rehabilitation this year! fb2016lilgirl_img_4733This year we have been and still are giving our “best effort” second chances to numerous baby squirrels displaced during storms & hurricanes, such as Hermine and a boat load of infant opossums orphaned by hit & runs or baby possum ‘fall-aways’ that occurred while their Mom was beating feet from a precarious and life threatening situation, as well as, so many seabirds such as Northern Gannets & Pelicans and raptors to include owls of all shapes, sizes and colors. This year some ‘most unusuals’ came through our clinic doors as well. Not one, but two Yellow-billed Cuckoos needed medical attention, and we’re happy to say, they both made it despite severe cat attack injuries. A tiny Tern was washed down guttering from his rocky nest situated on a rooftop. He handled being in our care very well and ate us out of house and home! fboct2016_img_0248Please get your tickets today to hear their stories (and take the opportunity to tell a few wildlife stories of your own) and celebrate with some of the Wildlife Ambassadors attending, such as Dinah our resident Barred Owl (who fostered many baby Barred Owls over the years, including this year), Sweet Isabella or Little Girl our adorable Virginia Opossums or Isabeau, our elegant Red-Tailed Hawk, one or more of our gray or amber Screech Owls and one or more of our turtles will surely be onboard, too. fboct2016_img_4085Their human caretakers & handlers will be ready to answer all your questions and eager to share each animal resident’s story! Our education animals enjoy being the center of attention and our event attendees love taking pictures of them!! The Outer Banks Wildlife Shelter in Newport has been a safe haven for our down east wildlife locals and those passing through during migration who become orphaned, ill or who suffer injury for many years now, and having the means to give these animals the second chance they deserve is essential! Help us help our North Carolina wildlife by calling the shelter at 252-240-1200 to lock on your reservations. Can’t wait to see you there for a “Wild November Night!”

best always,

Linda Bergman-Althouse

author of “Save Them All